The 1973 war
This is the fourth Arab-Israeli round , The Arabs call it "The October war" , while the Israelis call it "The yom kippur war"
This phase began with an Egyptian Air strike on the Israeli targets in Sinai , 440 Egyptian Plane Shared in this attack , This strike achieved a great succes , Some Egyptian Pilots made Human missiles of themselves They crashed with their planes onto their targets to be Sure of complete distruction of it , 95% of the Israeli targets were distroyed , while the Egyptian planes suffered just 2% losses .
At 02:00 pm the 6th of October Egypt launched her forces alive , tens of thousands of Egyptians troops crossed the Suez Canal , attacking the Bar-leve line , In just 6 Hours all The Israeli lines of forces along the Canal collapsed ,The succes of the air strike was the main reason that made all the Egyptian forces repeat the succes . Firing using the artillery followed the air strike . in this operation more than 2 thousands artilleries launched thousand tons of ammunation in 53 minutes were the time planned for the first 5 division of infantry to cross the Suez canal ,and They succefully crossed .
Crossing the canal itself is a complete Miracle, atleast we have to remember what the Israeli Defense minister Moshe Dayan saied many times in the American press, he saied " If the Egyptian tryed to cross the Canal, the colour of the Canal's water will turn into red ,which is the Egyptian blood " He also expected that the Egyptians will capture the Bar-leve line atleast in complete 14 Days of fighting ( But the Egyptians captured it in just 6 Hours !)
The Egyptian forces controlled the general situation in the theatre of operation as well as the Suez canal . furthermore , the Egyptians caused great losses in the Israeli side and controlled navigation in the Red sea .
At the same time , the attack on all the Israeli fortifies out posts turned out isolated . On the other hand , The Egyptian aircraft and artillery targeted the close Israeli reserves ,in less than an hour Egypt had had 14,000 man crossed the Canal .
That great surprise unbalanced the Israelis ,But The Israeli aircraft began to interfere in the battle at 2:40 in an attempt to prevent the Egyptian forces from crossing the Suez Canal . the Egyptian missile umbrella resisted the Israeli aircraft and demolished the theory of the Israeli long arm for the first time since the state of Israel has been established in 1948 . with the last light of October 6th 1973 at the same time when the Israeli aircraft began to fly , The Egyptians Began to establish the bridges, As a result The Egyptian Tank began to move from the western bank to the eastern bank this move was in order to support the infantry in conforting Their enemy
The Israeli Counter attacks:- the first Israeli counter attack was on 02:45 , it was a pleasent surprise to the Egyptians , But a Bad one to The Israelis resulted That the Israeli commander lost 40 tanks in that Battle and was obliged to retreat to the east .
in another place ,after more than 2000 kilometres ,the Egyptian submarines and destroyers were controlling the straits of Bab El-Mandeb in the southern part of the Red Sea in order to complete the naval blockade around Israel .
In the morning of the October 7th almost all the Egyptian forces were on the Eastern side of The Suez Canal , in That day the Egyptians seizured their first strategic Targets in Sinai , El-Kantara east . The Israeli side was copletely confident that the Egyptians will never come close to that town . the reason of their confident was that the Israelis surrounded this town by well fortified strongholds ;as this town is the key of the northen axis in Sainai .
Thn Israel mobilizied 3 armoured troops in Sinai so as tor etrieve the previos situation , Their First attack was on the 8th of October , Atleast haif of the Israeli tanks were distroyed , so General Avraham Adan rescued the rest when he gave his orders of withdrawing away from the Egyptian forces , It's mentioned that he screamed "They are not the Egyptians of 1967 , did the Egyptian changed to that extent
This Day was called in Israel "The sad Monday" The Israeli Defense minister was frustrated and held a press conference ,in which he saied "the situation on the Egyptian front is very Difficult"
Moreover Golda Mier , the Israeli prime minister cried while speaking on phone to Mr. Kissinger screaming "save Israel"
On October 9th , General Ariel Sharon tried to achieve what General Adan could not the day before He insisted on penetrating the defenses to reach the western side of ther Canal .Therefore, he made twelve attacks that resulted in 112 of his tanks being distroyed . Finally , General Sharon admitted his failure , it's mentioned that he saied "We cannot stop the Egyptians , we cannot stop them "
The 10th of October was a crucial day when the third defeat of the Israeli operational reserve took place . General Goneon , the commandor of the southern command tried to show his potentials in the light of the subsequentl Egyptian victories . His attempt was through an attack on the Egyptian forces after Golda Mier appointed some new commandors , this attack was launched along the front , failed too , Thus Israel found itself obliged to change it's strategy on the southern front on Sinai .
The USA Protects Israel :- The USA established an air-lift to save Israel, it was the Heaviest air-lift since the WW2, supplying Israel with new waepons of 4.9 Billion Dollars , included 56,000 tons carried on Israeli and American air-crafts , in addition to 33,000 tons through the Naval bridge .
after this moment The Israeli tanks Became out number , 10:1 , Israel began to balance itself and crossed the Canal from the Devresoir Gap , trying to siege the Egyptian third army .
The Israelis sufferedlosses in this phase much more the begining , and they failed to siee the Ehyptian third army , so they found no choice but to beg for a cease fire , so the war ended .
Lets ask ourselves Did Israel won in 1973 ? well , the results of the war prove this is wrong .
The End Results of october war 1973:-
1-Golda Mier resigned from her duties.
2-Moshe dian left his position too.
3-Most of the israeli generals and mosad got their rank badges torn off.
4-Israel accepted peace treaty that they refused in 1971 , only accepted it after the war .
5-Egypt got back sinai to the last inch .
on the other hand the other Question here is : did the Israeli forces achieve any victory in the operation of "the Gap" ? The facts indicate that the opposite is completely true . many defects appeared when the Israeli forces faced the Egyptian forces . some of these defects are the following:
1-The time frame of the operation : it was planned that the town of Suez would be occupied on October 8th , But Facts showed that the first Israeli attack on the city was on October 24th , and ended with an absolute Failure .
2-The strategic side : time is an important factor for Israel . the mobilization represented about 20% of the workforce in that country . the interstice was the reason for the prolonging of the tme frame of the operation to 4 monthes . Therfore ,the life itself in Israel was affected and this was one of the Egyptian aims of operation .
3-The aim of that operation was to distroy the Egyptian forces or to compel these forces to wthdraw to the west , actually this didnot happen either as the Egyptian Command hurried regaining Balance through strategic reserves .
4-The seige of strategic targets : Israel aimed in that operation at seizing strategic targets in order to use that in publicity. But even this goal was not reached as a result , The Israeli prime minister had to stand in a deserted villiage so as to give an example that she seized a town on the western side . Consequently , this led to loosing her credibility .
5-The high Israeli losses ratio : there is nothing to be mentioned here better than an extract of what Moshe Dayan , The Israeli Defense Minister , said in the evaluation of interstice operation He sayed " The third act in the Israeli plan was to cross the canal to the west side and controle the line of Ismailia/Ataka mountain . Much Israeli blood was shed in these operations, but this the law of war . Israel lost 2700 persones , which is very expensive as it lost one of each thousand of it's population. this itself is painful "
Here are some pictures about the war
-By Lu'ay El-Menshawy-